Interactive diagrams

R&D expenditure, total

Development of gross domestic expenditure on R&D in Germany (in billion euros) and percentage of GDP

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) represents all funds used to carry out domestic R&D, regardless of the source of funding. It therefore also includes funds from abroad and from international organisations for research carried out in Germany. However, this does not include funds for R&D performed abroad by international organisations based in Germany or funds distributed abroad. The ratio of a state’s R&D expenditure to its gross domestic product (GDP) is its R&D intensity.


R&D expenditure, sectors

Expenditure on R&D by performing sector (in billion euros)

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) represents the component of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) incurred by units belonging to the business enterprise sector. R&D expenditure by the higher education sector (HERD), the government sector (GOVERD) and the private non-profit sector (PNPERD) is the component of gross domestic expenditure on R&D incurred by units belonging to the higher education sector, units in the government sector, and units in the private non-profit sector respectively.


R&D expenditure, international comparison - EU

Expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP, intra-EU comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) represents all funds used to carry out domestic R&D, regardless of the source of funding. It therefore also includes funds from abroad and from international organisations for research carried out in Germany. However, this does not include funds for R&D performed abroad by international organisations based in Germany or funds distributed abroad. The ratio of a state’s R&D expenditure to its gross domestic product (GDP) is its R&D intensity.


R&D expenditure, international comparison - World

Expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP, international comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) represents all funds used to carry out domestic R&D, regardless of the source of funding. It therefore also includes funds from abroad and from international organisations for research carried out in Germany. However, this does not include funds for R&D performed abroad by international organisations based in Germany or funds distributed abroad. The ratio of a state’s R&D expenditure to its gross domestic product (GDP) is its R&D intensity.


R&D personnel, total

R&D persons employed in Germany in full-time equivalents (FTE) and in FTE per thousand employed persons

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The R&D personnel of a statistical unit include all persons engaged directly in R&D. R&D personnel can be divided into three categories: researchers, technicians and other supporting staff. Full-time equivalent (FTE) of R&D personnel is defined as the ratio of working hours actually spent on R&D during a specific reference period (usually a calendar year) divided by the total number of hours conventionally worked in the same period by an individual or by a group.


R&D personnel, by sex

R&D persons employed in Germany in full-time equivalents (FTE), by sex

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The R&D personnel of a statistical unit include all persons engaged directly in R&D. R&D personnel can be divided into three categories: researchers, technicians and other supporting staff. Full-time equivalent (FTE) of R&D personnel is defined as the ratio of working hours actually spent on R&D during a specific reference period (usually a calendar year) divided by the total number of hours conventionally worked in the same period by an individual or by a group.


R&D personnel, international comparison - EU

R&D personnel intensity in full-time equivalents (FTE per thousand persons employed), intra-EU comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The R&D personnel intensity expresses the number of persons employed in R&D (R&D personnel in full-time equivalents) per 1,000 persons in employment. This indicator allows international comparisons to be made. However, some countries do not record any values for R&D personnel intensity (e.g. USA, Israel). For these countries, however, the OECD has values for researchers per 1,000 employed persons.


R&D personnel, international comparison - World

R&D personnel intensity in full-time equivalents (FTE per thousand persons employed), international comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The R&D personnel intensity expresses the number of persons employed in R&D (R&D personnel in full-time equivalents) per 1,000 persons in employment. This indicator allows international comparisons to be made. However, some countries do not record any values for R&D personnel intensity (e.g. USA, Israel). For these countries, however, the OECD has values for researchers per 1,000 employed persons.


R&D results, scientific publications - EU

Number of scientific publications per million inhabitants, intra-EU comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The number of scientific publications in international comparison is reported per million inhabitants. This allows international comparisons to be made. The calculation was carried out by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research using data from the Science Citation Index, the OECD and the World Bank.


R&D results, scientific publications - World

Number of scientific publications per million inhabitants, international comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The number of scientific publications in international comparison is reported per million inhabitants. This allows international comparisons to be made. The calculation was carried out by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research using data from the Science Citation Index, the OECD and the World Bank.


R&D results, international patents - EU

International patents per million inhabitants, intra-EU comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The number of international patent applications in international comparison is shown per million inhabitants. This allows international comparisons to be made. International patents are inventions that have been filed with the European Patent Office or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The calculation was carried out by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research using data from the European Patent Office (PATSTAT), the OECD and the World Bank.


R&D results, international patents - World

International patents per million inhabitants, international comparison

Show/hide data sets

Download figure with selected data sets as …

About the indicator

The number of international patent applications in international comparison is shown per million inhabitants. This allows international comparisons to be made. International patents are inventions that have been filed with the European Patent Office or the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The calculation was carried out by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research using data from the European Patent Office (PATSTAT), the OECD and the World Bank.