Facts and figures

R&D expenditure, total

R&D expenditure in the Federal Republic of Germany (in billion euros) and as a percentage of GDP

relative absolute

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About the indicator

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D represents all funds used to carry out domestic R&D, regardless of the source of funding. The ratio of R&D expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) is known as R&D intensity.


R&D expenditure, higher education

R&D expenditure at universities (in billion euros) and as a percentage of GDP

relative absolute

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About the indicator

Higher education expenditure on R&D represents the component of gross domestic expenditure on R&D incurred by units in the higher education sector. The higher education sector includes all universities, universities of applied sciences and other institutions providing formal tertiary education programmes, whatever their source of finance or legal status, and all research institutes, research centres, experimental stations and clinics that have their R&D activities under the direct control of, or are administered by, tertiary education institutions.


Source

BMBF's data portal - Table 1.6.3

own calculation, DLR Project Management Agency

R&D expenditure, government

R&D expenditure at non-university research institutions (in billion euros) and as a percentage of GDP

relative absolute

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About the indicator

Government expenditure on R&D represents the component of gross domestic expenditure on R&D incurred by units belonging to the government sector. The government sector comprises all units of central, regional or local government (i.e. federal, state, local government), with the exception of those units that provide higher education services, as well as all non-market, non-profit institutions controlled by government units which are not part of the higher education sector.


R&D expenditure, business enterprise

Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D by state of residence of the research institution (in billion euros) and as a percentage of GDP

relative absolute

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About the indicator

Business enterprise expenditure on R&D represents the component of gross domestic expenditure on R&D incurred by units belonging to the business enterprise sector. The business enterprise sector includes all resident corporations, legally unincorporated branches of non-resident enterprises, and all resident non-profit institutions that are market producers of goods or services or serve businesses. This sector comprises both private and public enterprises.


R&D personnel, total

R&D persons employed in full-time equivalents (FTE) and in FTE per thousand employed persons

relative absolute

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About the indicator

The R&D personnel of a statistical unit include all persons engaged directly in R&D. R&D personnel can be divided into three categories: researchers, technicians and other supporting staff. Full-time equivalent (FTE) of R&D personnel is defined as the ratio of working hours actually spent on R&D during a specific reference period (usually a calendar year) divided by the total number of hours conventionally worked in the same period by an individual or by a group.


R&D personnel, higher education

R&D personnel in higher education in full-time equivalents (FTE)

relative absolute

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About the indicator

The R&D personnel of a statistical unit include all persons engaged directly in R&D. The higher education sector includes all universities, universities of applied sciences and other institutions providing formal tertiary education programmes, whatever their source of finance or legal status, and all research institutes, research centres, experimental stations and clinics that have their R&D activities under the direct control of, or are administered by, tertiary education institutions.


R&D personnel, government

R&D personnel in non-university research institutions in full-time equivalents (FTE)

relative absolute